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Research Citations for Ingredients in MitoForte

NBI's research and development team—led by physicians from Harvard, Cornell, MIT and Bastyr—is obsessed with researching NBI product ingredients. Before NBI manufactures a product the formula must first pass rigorous tests to ensure its ingredients are strongly supported by published research from around the world. The amount of resources dedicated to investigating NBI product ingredients, and the quality of research, are considered the highest in the industry. 

There are more than 230 citations supporting the ingredients in MitoForte.

Citations on Acetyl-Carnitine

  1. Ames BN, Liu J. Delaying the Mitochondrial Decay of Aging with Acetylcarnitine. Vol 1033; 2004:108-116.
  2. Ames BN. The metabolic tune-up: metabolic harmony and disease prevention. J Nutr. May 2003;133(5 Suppl 1):1544S-1548S.
  3. Ames, B. N. and J. Liu (2004). Delaying the Mitochondrial Decay of Aging with Acetylcarnitine. 1033: 108-116.
  4. Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Wehr CM, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 4 1998;95(16):9562-9566.
  5. Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, et al. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 19 2002;99(4):1870-1875.
  6. Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev. Dec 2005;10(4):268-293.
  7. Lenzi A, Sgro P, Salacone P, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined -carnitine and -acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertility and Sterility. 2004/6 2004;81(6):1578-1584.
  8. Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, et al. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Feb 19 2002;99(4):2356-2361.
  9. Liu J, Head E, Kuratsune H, Cotman CW, Ames BN. Comparison of the Effects of l-Carnitine and Acetyl-l-Carnitine on Carnitine Levels, Ambulatory Activity, and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Brain of Old Rats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2004;1033(1):117-131.
  10. Liu J, Killilea DW, Ames BN. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 19 2002;99(4):1876-1881.
  11. M Youle MO. A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of acetyl l-carnitine in the symptomatic treatment of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in patients with HIV-1 infection. HIV Medicine. 2007;8(4):241-250.
  12. Neustadt J, Pieczenik SR. Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(7):780-788.
  13. Pettegrew JW, Klunk WE, Panchalingam K, Kanfer JN, McClure RJ. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging. 1995;16(1):1-4.
  14. Pieczenik SR, Neustadt J. Mitochondrial dysfunction and molecular pathways of disease. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 2007;83(1):84-92.
  15. Puca FM, Genco S, Specchio LM, et al. Clinical pharmacodynamics of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Parkinson's disease. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10(1-2):139-143.
  16. Rashed MS, Ozand PT, Bucknall MP, Little D. Diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism from blood spots by acylcarnitines and amino acids profiling using automated electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Pediatr Res. 1995;38(3):324-331.
  17. Rebouche CJ. Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov 2004;1033:30-41.
  18. Rinaldo P, Welch RD, Previs SF, et al. Ethylmalonic/adipic aciduria: effects of oral medium-chain triglycerides, carnitine, and glycine on urinary excretion of organic acids, acylcarnitines, and acylglycines. Pediatr Res. Sep 1991;30(3):216-221.
  19. Ruggenenti P, Cattaneo D, Loriga G, et al. Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk: Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy. Hypertension. 2009;54(3):567-574.
  20. Shen W, Liu K, Tian C, et al. R -α-Lipoic acid and acetyl-l -carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2008;51(1):165-174.
  21. Sima AA, Calvani M, Mehra M, Amato A. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care. Jan 2005;28(1):89-94.
  22. Sorbi S, Forleo P, Fani C, Piacentini S. Double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial with L-acetylcarnitine in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia. Clin Neuropharmacol. Mar-Apr 2000;23(2):114-118.
  23. Tanaka Y, Sasaki R, Fukui F, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation restores decreased tissue carnitine levels and impaired lipid metabolisms in aged rats. J Lipid Res. Jan 1 2004.
  24. Tomassini V, Pozzilli C, Onesti E, et al. Comparison of the effects of acetyl -carnitine and amantadine for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: results of a pilot, randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2004;218(1-2):103-108.
  25. Zanardi R, Smeraldi E. A double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial of acetyl-L-carnitine vs. amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. May 2006;16(4):281-287.
  26. Zanelli Sa, Solenski Nj, Rosenthal Re, Fiskum G. Mechanisms of Ischemic Neuroprotection by Acetyl-l-carnitine. Ann NY Acad Sci. August 1, 2005 2005;1053(1):153-161.

Citations on Alpha Lipoic Acid

  1. Ames BN. The metabolic tune-up: metabolic harmony and disease prevention. J Nutr. May 2003;133(5 Suppl 1):1544S-1548S.
  2. Burekovic A, Terzic M, Alajbegovic S, Vukojevic Z, Hadzic N. The role of alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic polyneuropathy treatment. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. Nov 2008;8(4):341-345.
  3. Busse E, Zimmer G, Schopohl B, Kornhuber B. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on intracellular glutathione in vitro and in vivo. Arzneimittelforschung. Jun 1992;42(6):829-831.
  4. Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky GM. Oxidative Stress and Stress-Activated Signaling Pathways: A Unifying Hypothesis of Type 2 Diabetes. Endocr Rev. 2002;23(5):599-622.
  5. Gedlicka C, Kornek GV, Schmid K, Scheithauer W. Amelioration of docetaxel/cisplatin induced polyneuropathy by {alpha}-lipoic acid. Ann Oncol. 2003;14(2):339-340.
  6. Gedlicka C, Scheithauer W, Schull B, Kornek GV. Effective Treatment of Oxaliplatin-Induced Cumulative Polyneuropathy With Alpha-Lipoic Acid. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(15):3359-3361.
  7. Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, et al. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 19 2002;99(4):1870-1875.
  8. Han D, Handelman G, Marcocci L, et al. Lipoic acid increases de novo synthesis of cellular glutathione by improving cystine utilization. Biofactors. 1997;6(3):321-338.
  9. Hermann R, Niebch G, Borbe HO, et al. Enantioselective pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of different racemic alpha-lipoic acid formulations in healthy volunteers. Eur J Pharm Sci. 1996;4:167-174.
  10. Higdon J. Lipoic Acid. Micronutrient Information Center [web page]. April 10, 2006; http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/othernuts/la/. Accessed August 8, 2006.
  11. Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Schiemann AL, et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung. Aug 1995;45(8):872-874.
  12. Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev. Dec 2005;10(4):268-293.
  13. Kim HJ, Chang E-J, Kim H-M, et al. Antioxidant [alpha]-lipoic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing nuclear factor-[kappa]B DNA binding and prevents in vivo bone resorption induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-[kappa]B ligand and tumor necrosis factor-[alpha]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2006;40(9):1483-1493.
  14. Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al. alpha-Lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. Feb 1999;22(2):280-287.
  15. Kramer K, Packer L. R-alpha lipoic acid. In: Kramer K, Hoppe P, Packer L, eds. Nutraceuticals in Health and Disease Prevention. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 2001:129-164.
  16. Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, et al. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Feb 19 2002;99(4):2356-2361.
  17. Liu J, Killilea DW, Ames BN. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 19 2002;99(4):1876-1881.
  18. Logan AC, Wong C. Chronic fatigue syndrome: oxidative stress and dietary modifications. Altern Med Rev. Oct 2001;6(5):450-459.
  19. Maitra I, Serbinova E, Tritschler HJ, Packer L. Stereospecific effects of R-lipoic acid on buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Apr 16 1996;221(2):422-429.
  20. Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, et al. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant mechanisms and serum cytokine levels in cancer patients: impact of an antioxidant treatment. J Cell Mol Med. Oct-Dec 2002;6(4):570-582.
  21. Miller AL. Cardiovascular Disease--Toward a Unified Approach. Alt Med Rev. 1996;1(3):132-147.
  22. Neustadt J, Pieczenik SR. Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(7):780-788.
  23. Nichols TW. Alpha-Lipoic Acid: Biological Effects and Clinical Implications. Alt Med Rev. 1998;2(3):177-183.
  24. Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ. alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med. Aug 1995;19(2):227-250.
  25. Packer L. alpha-Lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant which regulates NF-kappa B signal transduction and protects against oxidative injury. Drug Metab Rev. May 1998;30(2):245-275.
  26. Patrick L. Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. Altern Med Rev. Dec 2002;7(6):456-471.
  27. Pieczenik SR, Neustadt J. Mitochondrial dysfunction and molecular pathways of disease. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 2007;83(1):84-92.
  28. Podda M, Tritschler HJ, Ulrich H, Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Oct 14 1994;204(1):98-104.
  29. Rebrin I, Zicker S, Wedekind KJ, Paetau-Robinson I, Packer L, Sohal RS. Effect of antioxidant-enriched diets on glutathione redox status in tissue homogenates and mitochondria of the senescence-accelerated mouse. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;39(4):549-557.
  30. Rosenfeldt F, Miller F, Nagley P, et al. Response of the Senescent Heart to Stress: Clinical Therapeutic Strategies and Quest for Mitochondrial Predictors of Biological Age. Ann NY Acad Sci. June 1, 2004 2004;1019(1):78-84.
  31. Savitha S, Sivarajan K, Haripriya D, Kokilavani V, Panneerselvam C. Efficacy of levo carnitine and alpha lipoic acid in ameliorating the decline in mitochondrial enzymes during aging. Clin Nutr. 2005;24(5):794-800.
  32. Scott BC, Aruoma OI, Evans PJ, et al. Lipoic and dihydrolipoic acids as antioxidants. A critical evaluation. Free Radic Res. Feb 1994;20(2):119-133.
  33. Shen W, Liu K, Tian C, et al. R -α-Lipoic acid and acetyl-l -carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2008;51(1):165-174.
  34. Smith AR, Shenvi SV, Widlansky M, Suh JH, Hagen TM. Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem. May 2004;11(9):1135-1146.
  35. Suzuki YJ, Tsuchiya M, Packer L. Thioctic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are novel antioxidants which interact with reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Res Commun. 1991;15(5):255-263.
  36. Tang J, Wingerchuk DM, Crum BA, Rubin DI, Demaerschalk BM. Alpha-lipoic acid may improve symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Neurologist. May 2007;13(3):164-167.
  37. Teichert J, Kern J, Tritschler HJ, Ulrich H, Preiss R. Investigations on the pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. Dec 1998;36(12):625-628.
  38. Varalakshmi P, Sandhya S, Malarkodi KP. Evaluation of the effect of lipoic acid administered along with gentamicin in rats rendered bacteremic. Mol Cell Biochem. Jun 2003;248(1-2):35-40.
  39. Xu DP, Wells WW. alpha-Lipoic acid dependent regeneration of ascorbic acid from dehydroascorbic acid in rat liver mitochondria. J Bioenerg Biomembr. Feb 1996;28(1):77-85.
  40. Ziegler D, Ametov A, Barinov A, et al. Oral treatment with [alpha]-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2365(2366).
  41. Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia. Dec 1995;38(12):1425-1433.
  42. Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: a 7-month multicenter randomized controlled trial (ALADIN III Study). ALADIN III Study Group. Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(8):1296-1301.

Citations on Biotin

  1. Depeint, F., W. R. Bruce, et al. (2006). Mitochondrial function and toxicity: Role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Chem Biol Interact.
  2. Janos Z, Subhashinee SKW, Yousef IH. Biotin. BioFactors. 2009;35(1):36-46.
  3. Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev. Dec 2005;10(4):268-293.
  4. McMahon, R. J. (2002). "Biotin in metabolism and molecular biology." Annual Review of Nutrition 22(1): 221-239.
  5. Reynold S, Conrad EJ. Vitamin transport and homeostasis in mammalian brain: focus on Vitamins B and E. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2007;103(2):425-438.

Citations on Huperzine A

  1. Bai DL, Tang XC, He XC. Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Med Chem. Mar 2000;7(3):355-374.
  2. Haviv H, Wong DM, Silman I, Sussman JL. Bivalent Ligands Derived from Huperzine A as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2007;7(4):375-387.
  3. Hualiang J, Xiaomin L, Donglu Bai R. Progress in Clinical, Pharmacological, Chemical and Structural Biological Studies of Huperzine A: A Drug of Traditional Chinese Medicine Origin for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2003;10(21):2231-2252.
  4. Jiang H, Luo X, D. Progress in clinical, pharmacological, chemical and structural biological studies of huperzine A: a drug of traditional chinese medicine origin for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Med Chem. Nov 2003;10(21):2231-2252.
  5. Li J, Wu HM, Zhou RL, Liu GJ, Dong BR. Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(2):CD005592.
  6. Li YX, Zhang RQ, Li CR, Jiang XH. Pharmacokinetics of huperzine A following oral administration to human volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. Oct-Dec 2007;32(4):183-187.
  7. Liang Y-q, Tang X-c. Comparative studies of huperzine A, donepezil, and rivastigmine on brain acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in freely-moving rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2006;27(9):1127-1136.
  8. Li-li Tang RWX-cT. Effects of huperzine A on secretion of nerve growth factor in cultured rat cortical astrocytes and neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 cells. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2005;26(6):673-678.
  9. Little JT, Walsh S, Aisen PS. An update on huperzine A as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. Feb 2008;17(2):209-215.
  10. Qian BC, Wang M, Zhou ZF, Chen K, Zhou RR, Chen GS. Pharmacokinetics of tablet huperzine A in six volunteers. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. Sep 1995;16(5):396-398.
  11. Skolnick AA. Old Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Fever Yields Possible New Alzheimer Disease Therapy. JAMA. 1997;277(10):776-
  12. Sun QQ, Xu SS, Pan JL, Guo HM, Cao WQ. Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. Jul 1999;20(7):601-603.
  13. Tang XC. Huperzine A (shuangyiping): a promising drug for Alzheimer's disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. Nov 1996;17(6):481-484.
  14. Wang R, Tang XC. Neuroprotective effects of huperzine A. A natural cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):71-82.
  15. Wang R, Yan H, Tang X-c. Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2006;27(1):1-26.
  16. Wang R, Yan H, Tang XC. Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine. Acta Pharmacol Sin. Jan 2006;27(1):1-26.
  17. Xu SS, Cai ZY, Qu ZW, et al. Huperzine-A in capsules and tablets for treating patients with Alzheimer disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. Jun 1999;20(6):486-490.
  18. Xu SS, Gao ZX, Weng Z, et al. Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. Sep 1995;16(5):391-395.
  19. Xu SS, Gao ZX, Weng Z, et al. Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. Sep 1995;16(5):391-395.
  20. Yan Zhao PYUETTAOQ-hC. Drug brain distribution following intranasal administration of Huperzine A in situ gel in rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2007;28(2):273-278.
  21. Zangara A. The psychopharmacology of huperzine A: an alkaloid with cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Jun 2003;75(3):675-686.
  22. Zhang HY, Tang XC. Neuroprotective effects of huperzine A: new therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disease. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 2006;27(12):619-625.
  23. Zhang JT. New drugs derived from medicinal plants. Therapie. Mar-Apr 2002;57(2):137-150.
  24. Zhang Z-J, Tong Y, Wang X-Y, Yao S-M, Jin G-X, Wang X-P. Huperzine A as add-on therapy in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: An open-labeled trial. Schizophrenia Research. 2007;92(1-3):273-275.

Citations on L-Carnitine

  1. Asai T, Okumura K, Takahashi R, et al. Combined therapy with PPARalpha agonist and L-carnitine rescues lipotoxic cardiomyopathy due to systemic carnitine deficiency. Cardiovasc Res. Jun 1 2006;70(3):566-577.
  2. Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Holwerda KJ, Kruijssen DA. Anti-ischaemic efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine--a promising novel metabolic approach to ischaemia? Eur Heart J. Mar 1996;17(3):414-420.
  3. Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Pillay M, Schonfeld DH, Kruijssen DA. Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in men with angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. Jul 15 1994;74(2):125-130.
  4. Benvenga S, Amato A, Calvani M, Trimarchi F. Effects of Carnitine on Thyroid Hormone Action. Vol 1033; 2004:158-167.
  5. Benvenga S, Lakshmanan M, Trimarchi F. Carnitine is a naturally occurring inhibitor of thyroid hormone nuclear uptake. Thyroid. Dec 2000;10(12):1043-1050.
  6. Benvenga S, Lapa D, Cannavo S, Trimarchi F. Successive thyroid storms treated with L-carnitine and low doses of methimazole. Am J Med. Oct 1 2003;115(5):417-418.
  7. Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, Lapa D, Campenni A, Trimarchi F. Usefulness of L-Carnitine, A Naturally Occurring Peripheral Antagonist of Thyroid Hormone Action, in Iatrogenic Hyperthyroidism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. August 1, 2001 2001;86(8):3579-3594.
  8. Berner YN, Larchian WA, Lowry SF, Nicroa RR, Brennan MF, Shike M. Low plasma carnitine in patients on prolonged total parenteral nutrition: association with low plasma lysine. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1990;14(3):255-258.
  9. Binienda, Z., B. Prxybyla-Zawislak, et al. (2005). l-Carnitine and Neuroprotection in the Animal Model of Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Ann NY Acad Sci 1053(1): 174-182.
  10. Brass E, Adler S, Sietsema K, Hiatt W, Orlando A, Amato A. Intravenous l -carnitine increases plasma carnitine, reduces fatigue, and may preserve exercise capacity in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2001/5// 2001;37(5):1018-1028.
  11. Brass EP. Carnitine and Sports Medicine: Use or Abuse? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2004;1033(1):67-78.
  12. Brinkman K, Vrouenraets S, Kauffmann R, Weigel H, Frissen J. Treatment of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-induced lactic acidosis. AIDS. Dec 1 2000;14(17):2801-2802.
  13. Bykov IL. [Effect of L-carnitine on metabolic disorders in rats with experimental acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. Nov-Dec 2004;67(6):48-52.
  14. Calo LA, Davis PA, Semplicini A, Pessina AC. L-Carnitine and erythropoiesis: relationship with haeme oxygenase-1. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. August 1, 2005 2005;20(8):1769-1770.
  15. Carvajal K, Moreno-Sanchez R. Heart metabolic disturbances in cardiovascular diseases. Arch Med Res. Mar-Apr 2003;34(2):89-99.
  16. Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, Modenini F, Biagiotti G. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. Apr 2004;63(4):641-646.
  17. Chang B, Nishikawa M, Nishiguchi S, Inoue M. L-carnitine inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis via protection of mitochondria. Int J Cancer. Feb 20 2005;113(5):719-729.
  18. Chazot C, Blanc C, Hurot JM, Charra B, Jean G, Laurent G. Nutritional effects of carnitine supplementation in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol. Jan 2003;59(1):24-30.
  19. Cruciani RA, Dvorkin E, Homel P, et al. l-Carnitine Supplementation for the Treatment of Fatigue and Depressed Mood in Cancer Patients with Carnitine Deficiency: A Preliminary Analysis. Vol 1033; 2004:168-176.
  20. Curione M, Danese C, Viola F, et al. Carnitine deficiency in patients with coeliac disease and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Aug 2005;15(4):279-283.
  21. Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, Boem A. Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18(8):355-365.
  22. Dawson DB, Waber L, Hale DE, Bennett MJ. Transient organic aciduria and persistent lacticacidemia in a patient with short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. J Pediatr. Jan 1995;126(1):69-71.
  23. Evans AM, Fornasini G. Pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003;42(11):941-967.
  24. Famularo G, Simone C, Trinchieri V, Mosca L. Carnitines and Its Congeners: A Metabolic Pathway to the Regulation of Immune Response and Inflammation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2004;1033(1):132-138.
  25. Feller AG, Rudman D. Role of carnitine in human nutrition. Journal of Nutrition. 1988;118(5):541-547.
  26. Feoli-Fonseca JC, Lambert M, Mitchell G, et al. Chronic sodium benzoate therapy in children with inborn errors of urea synthesis: effect on carnitine metabolism and ammonia nitrogen removal. Biochem Mol Med. Feb 1996;57(1):31-36.
  27. Fernandez Ortega MF. Effect of dietary lysine level and protein restriction on the lipids and carnitine levels in the liver of pregnant rats. Ann Nutr Metab. 1989;33(3):162-169.
  28. Ferrari R, Cicchitelli G, Merli E, Andreadou I, Guardigli G. Metabolic modulation and optimization of energy consumption in heart failure. Med Clin North Am. Mar 2003;87(2):493-507, xii-xiii.
  29. Ferrari R, Merli E, Cicchitelli G, Mele D, Fucili A, Ceconi C. Therapeutic Effects of l-Carnitine and Propionyl-l-carnitine on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review. Vol 1033; 2004:79-91.
  30. Fischer GM, Nemeti B, Farkas V, et al. Metabolism of carnitine in phenylacetic acid-treated rats and in patients with phenylketonuria. Biochim Biophys Acta. Jun 15 2000;1501(2-3):200-210.
  31. Fugh-Berman A. Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Prev Cardiol. Winter 2000;3(1):24-32.
  32. Gellera C, Uziel G, Rimoldi M, et al. Fumarase deficiency is an autosomal recessive encephalopathy affecting both the mitochondrial and the cytosolic enzymes. Neurology. Mar 1990;40(3 Pt 1):495-499.
  33. Gordon N. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: varieties with neurological involvement. Dev Med Child Neurol. Mar 2005;47(3):207-210.
  34. Gordon N. Glutaric aciduria types I and II. Brain Dev. Apr 2006;28(3):136-140.
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