Research Citations for Ingredients in Osteo-K

NBI's research and development team—led by physicians from Harvard, Cornell, MIT and Bastyr—is obsessed with researching NBI product ingredients. Before NBI manufactures a product the formula must first pass rigorous tests to ensure its ingredients are strongly supported by published research from around the world. The amount of resources dedicated to investigating NBI product ingredients, and the quality of research, are considered the highest in the industry.

There are more than 100 research studies supporting the ingredients in Osteo-K and Osteo-K Minis. This page lists the studies done on Osteo-K and Osteo-K Minis' ingredients for bone and cardiovascular health. You can also click to see tables summarizing the MK4 research for cancer support.

Learn why Osteo-K clobbers the competition: click to view a chart comparing Osteo-K to other leading calcium supplements, such as Viactiv, Citracal, Bone-Up, Os-Cal and Caltrate.

MK4 and Bone Mineral Density

  1. Adams J, Pepping J. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(15):1574-1581.
  2. Hara K, Kobayashi M, Akiyama Y. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) inhibits bone loss induced by prednisolone partly through enhancement of bone formation in rats. Bone. Nov 2002;31(5):575-581.
  3. Iketani T, Kiriike N, B. Stein M, et al. Effect of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) treatment on bone loss in patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research. 2003;117(3):259-269.
  4. Inoue T, Sugiyama T, Matsubara T, et al. Inverse correlation between the changes of lumbar bone mineral density and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin after vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment in children treated with glucocorticoid and alfacalcidol. Endocr J 2001;48:11-18.
  5. Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-164.
  6. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Combined treatment with vitamin K2 and bisphosphonate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Yonsei Med J 2003;44:751-756.
  7. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci. 2000;5(6):546-551.
  8. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Effect of vitamin K2 and growth hormone on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats: a bone histomorphometry study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2007;25(1):46-53.
  9. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K(2) supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. Feb 8 2007.
  10. Koshihara Y, Hoshi K, Okawara R, Ishibashi H, Yamamoto S. Vitamin K stimulates osteoblastogenesis and inhibits osteoclastogenesis in human bone marrow cell culture. J Endocrinol. 2003;176(3):339-348.
  11. Nishiguchi S, Shimoi S, Kurooka H, et al. Randomized pilot trial of vitamin K2 for bone loss in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2001;35:543-545.
  12. Plaza SM, Lamson DW. Vitamin K2 in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Altern Med Rev. Mar 2005;10(1):24-35.
  13. Purwosunu Y, Rachman IA, Reksoprodjo S, Sekizawa A. Vitamin K2 treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2006;32(2):230-234.
  14. Sasaki N, Kusano E, Takahashi H, et al. Vitamin K2 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss partly by preventing the reduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(1):41-47.
  15. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kaji M, et al. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson's disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31:114-118.
  16. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kaji M, et al. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson's disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31:114-118.
  17. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K. Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone. Sep 1998;23(3):291-296.
  18. Shiomi S, Nishiguchi S, Kubo S, et al. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) for bone loss in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2002;97(4):978-981.
  19. Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2000;15(3):515-522.
  20. Somekawa Y, Chigughi M, Harada M, Ishibashi T. Use of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the prevention of bone loss induced by leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2700-2704.
  21. Sugiyama T, Tanaka H, Kawai S. Clinical vignette. Vitamin K plus vitamin D treatment of bone problems in a child with skeletal unloading. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1466-1467.
  22. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002;41(3):211-221.
  23. Vermeer C, Jie KS, Knapen MH. Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1995;15:1-22
  24. Yonemura K, Fukasawa H, Fujigaki Y, Hishida A. Protective effect of vitamins K2 and D3 on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;43:53-60.
  25. Yonemura K, Kimura M, Miyaji T, Hishida A. Short-term effect of vitamin K administration on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66:123-128.

MK4 and Fracture Reduction

  1. Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5):1201-1208.
  2. Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the Prevention of Fractures: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256-1261.
  3. Kaneki M, Hosoi T, Ouchi Y, Orimo H. Pleiotropic actions of vitamin K: protector of bone health and beyond? Nutrition. 2006;22(7-8):845-852.
  4. Sato Y, Kanoko T, Satoh K, Iwamoto J. Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Bone. 2005;36(1):61-68.
  5. Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2000;15(3):515-522.

MK4 Cardiovascular Health Citations

  1. Adams J, Pepping J. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(15):1574-1581.
  2. Pizzorno L, Pizzorno J. Vitamin K: Beyond coagulation to uses in bone, vascular and anti-cancer metabolism. Integr Med. 2008;7(2):24-30.
  3. Ronden JE, Groenen-van Dooren MMCL, Hornstra G, Vermeer C. Modulation of arterial thrombosis tendency in rats by vitamin K and its side chains. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132(1):61-67.
  4. Schurgers LJ, Dissel PE, Spronk HM, et al. Role of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular calcification. Z Kardiol. 2001;90 Suppl 3:57-63.
  5. Spronk HMH, Soute BAM, Schurgers LJ, Thijssen HHW, De Mey JGR, Vermeer C. Tissue-Specific Utilization of Menaquinone-4 Results in the Prevention of Arterial Calcification in Warfarin-Treated Rats. Journal of Vascular Research. 11 2003;40(6):531-537.
  6. Wallin R, Schurgers L, Wajih N. Effects of the blood coagulation vitamin K as an inhibitor of arterial calcification. Thrombosis Research. 2008;122(3):411-417.

MK4 Citations for Postmenopausal Women

  1. Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-164.
  2. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Combined treatment with vitamin K2 and bisphosphonate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Yonsei Med J 2003;44:751-756.
  3. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci. 2000;5(6):546-551.
  4. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K(2) supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. Feb 8 2007.
  5. Purwosunu Y, Rachman IA, Reksoprodjo S, Sekizawa A. Vitamin K2 treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2006;32(2):230-234.
  6. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002;41(3):211-221.

MK4 in People with Alzheimer Disease

  1. Sato Y, Kanoko T, Satoh K, Iwamoto J. Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Bone. 2005;36(1):61-68.

MK4 Safety Citations

  1. Asakura H, Myou S, Ontachi Y, et al. Vitamin K administration to elderly patients with osteoporosis induces no hemostatic activation, even in those with suspected vitamin K deficiency. Osteoporos Int. Dec 2001;12(12):996-1000.
  2. Green PH, Jabri B. Coeliac disease. Lancet. 2003;362(9381):383-391.
  3. Ronden JE, Groenen-van Dooren MMCL, Hornstra G, Vermeer C. Modulation of arterial thrombosis tendency in rats by vitamin K and its side chains. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132(1):61-67.
  4. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002;41(3):211-221.

MK4 Citations for People with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

  1. Nishiguchi S, Shimoi S, Kurooka H, et al. Randomized pilot trial of vitamin K2 for bone loss in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2001;35:543-545.

MK4 Citations for People with Parkinson Disease

  1. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kaji M, et al. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson's disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31:114-118.

MK4 Citations for People with Anorexia Nervosa

  1. Iketani T, Kiriike N, B. Stein M, et al. Effect of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) treatment on bone loss in patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research. 2003;117(3):259-269.

MK4 Citations for People taking Prednisone

  1. Hara K, Kobayashi M, Akiyama Y. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) inhibits bone loss induced by prednisolone partly through enhancement of bone formation in rats. Bone. Nov 2002;31(5):575-581.
  2. Inoue T, Sugiyama T, Matsubara T, et al. Inverse correlation between the changes of lumbar bone mineral density and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin after vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment in children treated with glucocorticoid and alfacalcidol. Endocr J 2001;48:11-18.
  3. Sasaki N, Kusano E, Takahashi H, et al. Vitamin K2 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss partly by preventing the reduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(1):41-47.
  4. Yonemura K, Fukasawa H, Fujigaki Y, Hishida A. Protective effect of vitamins K2 and D3 on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;43:53-60.
  5. Yonemura K, Kimura M, Miyaji T, Hishida A. Short-term effect of vitamin K administration on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66:123-128.

MK4 Citations for People on Leuprolide

  1. Somekawa Y, Chigughi M, Harada M, Ishibashi T. Use of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the prevention of bone loss induced by leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2700-2704.

MK4 Citations for People Who’ve Had Strokes

  1. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K. Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone. Sep 1998;23(3):291-296.

MK4 Citations in People with Cirrhosis of the Liver

  1. Shiomi S, Nishiguchi S, Kubo S, et al. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) for bone loss in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2002;97(4):978-981.

Calcium and Vitamin D Citations

  1. Anderson PH, Sawyer RK, May BK, O'Loughlin PD, Morris HA. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D requirement for maintaining skeletal health utilising a Sprague-Dawley rat model. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2007;103(3-5):592-595.
  2. Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults: Scientific Review. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3116-3126.
  3. Gallagher JC, Rapuri P, Smith L. Falls are associated with decreased renal function and insufficient calcitriol production by the kidney. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2007;103(3-5):610-613.
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365(9471):1621-1628.
  5. Jesudason D, Need AG, Horowitz M, O'Loughlin PD, Morris HA, Nordin BEC. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone resorption markers in vitamin D insufficiency. Bone. 2002;31(5):626-630.
  6. Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation Prevents Osteoporotic Fractures in Elderly Community Dwelling Residents: A Pragmatic Population-Based 3-Year Intervention Study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2004;19(3):370-378.
  7. Masterjohn C. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1026-1034.

Celiac Disease and Osteoporosis

  1. Dewar DH, Ciclitira PJ. Clinical features and diagnosis of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(4, Supplement 1):S19-S24.
  2. Green PH. The many faces of celiac disease: Clinical presentation of celiac disease in the adult population. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(4, Supplement 1):S74-S78.
  3. Green PH, Jabri B. Coeliac disease. Lancet. 2003;362(9381):383-391.
  4. Hernandez L, Green PH. Extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. Oct 2006;8(5):383-389.
  5. Kemppainen T, Kroger H, Janatuinen E, et al. Osteoporosis in adult patients with celiac disease. Bone. 1999/3 1999;24(3):249-255.
  6. Richard J. Farrell CPK. Diagnosis of celiac sprue. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2001;96(12):3237-3246.
  7. Rodrigo L. Celiac disease. World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7 2006;12(41):6585-6593.
  8. Stenson WF, Newberry R, Lorenz R, Baldus C, Civitelli R. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Need for Routine Screening Among Patients With Osteoporosis. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(4):393-399.